|River||km in Serbia||Total lenght (km)||Number of counties|
the largest Serbian river. The Morava flows through the most fertile area of the central Serbia, and also the most populated, called Pomoravlje.
Other freshwater rivers are Sava, Morava, Tisa, and Timok. Almost all of Serbia’s rivers drain to the Black Sea, by way of the Danube river. One notable exception is Pčinja river which flows into the Aegean sea. The largest natural lake is Belo Jezero (White Lake), located in Vojvodina, covering 25 square kilometers. The largest artificial reservoir, Đerdap, locally known as Đerdapsko Lake, covers an area of 163 square kilometers on the Serbian side, and it has a total area of 253 square kilometers. The largest waterfall, Jelovarnik, located in Kopaonik, is 71 meters high.
The mighty Danube River, named by the Greek historian Herodotus “The King of the European Rivers,” forms much of Romania’s southern border. The Danube enters into Vojvodina in its middle course, 1.433 km away from its spring, where is the junction of the three borders of Republic of Hungary, Republic of Croatia and Republic of
Serbia. Among many backwaters and swamps arise unique natural oases that are settled by many species of plants and animals. All places along the coast of the river Danube in Vojvodina have rich hunting and fishing fund. Rare bird species and capital exemplars of deer and wild swine can be seen here. At places along the river Danube are present orthodox and catholic churches and also temples of other religious groups built from XVII to XIX century. Most of them are decorated with valuable iconostasis, frescoes and icons. Before meeting the Black Sea, the Danube forms one of the most spectacular wetlands in the world, The Danube Delta – a unique 2,100-square-mile wildlife reserve – home to more than 300 species of birds and about 160 kinds of fish, both fresh and salt-water species.
It originates from the Western and Southern Morava River near the town Stalać. It flows into the Danube in the area between Smederevo and Kostolac. Morava, together with the Western Morava, is the biggest Serbian river. The length of the Velika Morava is 185 km, together with West Morava length is 487 km. Velika Morava occurs by connecting the South and West Morava near a small town Stalać and the central railway junction in central Serbia. Once this river was more than 600km in length. Today is the most distant source of water for the Moravian catchment source of the river Ibar, the right and the largest tributary of the Western Morava.Velika Morava flows through most fertile and densely populated area of central Serbia, Pomoravlje. Pomoravlje was formed on the bay of the former Pannonian Sea which was drained about 200 000 years ago. In past centuries, was known for its vast forests. In history, it was navigable all way to the Ćuprija city. While it is always fertile Moravian Valley was the most densely populated part of Serbia, major flooding was preventing settling on the very shores of the river. The only city on the river banks is Ćuprija.Other cities are built a little furtherfrom the river, including following: Paraćin, Jagodina, Batočina, Lapovo, Svilajnac, Velika Plana, Požarevac and Smederevo.
Ibar River river in the Balkans, rising in Kosovo in the Mokra Mountains and flowing eastward to Mitrovica and then northward to join the West (Zapadna) Morava River in Serbia. Its length is 171 miles (276 km), and it has a drainage area of 3,100 square miles (8,000 square km). Major tributaries are the Raška, Studenica, and Sitnica . The adjacent upland is forested. There are croplands in the stream valleys, where the settlement pattern is frequently one of tightly grouped hamlets.
Excellent for those who prefer water sports, especially rafting. In a season you may visit event and participate in it, called Veseli Spust, usually it’s in July, sometimes in august. Also, if you are near Kraljevo or you are visiting monastery Žiča, this is something you actually don’t want to miss.
The Drina is a river flowing for the most part between Serbia and BiH, and is the largest karst river in the Dinaric Alps which belongs to the Danube river watershed. It is a 346 km long tributary of the Sava River, and it forms most of the border between BiH and Serbia. Its name is derived from the Latin name of the river (Latin: Drinus) which in turn is derived from Greek (Ancient Greek: ‘Dreinos’). The Drina is formed by the confluence of the Tara and the Piva rivers, both of which flow from Montenegro and converge on the border of BiH, at Hum and Šcepan Polje villages.
Mentioned throughout history, and immortalized in songs, the Drina River is also well known outside the borders for its green water, but primarily for the clear water that is just one category below the drinkable. In some parts of its flow this river is calm, but mostly it is full of rapids, so there is growing number of people going rafting there every year. It is the ideal vacation for those of the adventurous spirit.
Sava River, also spelled Save, German Sau, Hungarian Száva, river in the western Balkans. Its basin, 36,960 square miles (95,720 square km) in area, covers much of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and northern Serbia. It rises in the Triglav group of the Julian Alps as two rivers, the Sava Bohinjka and the Sava Dolinka, which join at Radovljica. It then flows mainly east-southeastward through Slovenia, just north of Ljubljana, through Croatia touching Zagreb, and then forms the border between Croatia and Bosnia before entering Serbia and joining the Danube River at Belgrade after a course of 584 miles (940 km). The Sava River is navigable upstream to Sisak, 362 miles (583 km) from the Danube, for small freight vessels. Its tributaries are the Soča, Savinja, Krka, Kupa, Lonja, Una, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, and Kolubara rivers. Major towns along the river are Kranj, Zagreb, Sisak, Slavonski Brod, Bosanski Šamac, Sremska Mitrovica, and Šabac.
It also gets very deep, up to 28-30 m near villages of Hrtkovci and Bosut, in Serbia. In Serbia it creates several big river islands (adas), including Podgorička ada near Provo and 2.7 km² Ada Ciganlija in Belgrade, the most popular Belgrade resort. The island has been connected to the right bank of the river with three causeways creating an artificial lake called “Lake Sava” with an area of 0.8 km². It is nicknamed “Belgrade Sea” and it is known to attract up to 350,000 visitors daily in the summer season.
The river has high electricity production potential in its upper course, up to 3.2 (including tributaries 4.7) billion kWh.
The Timok is a river in eastern Serbia and western Bulgaria. It derives the names in all these from the name it had in antiquity, Latin: Timacus. It is a very branchy system of many shorter rivers, a large number of them having the same name (Timok), only clarified with adjectives. From the farthest source in the system, that of theSvrljiški Timok, until its confluence into the Danube (as Veliki Timok), the Timok is 203 km long. The river flows through Serbia and for the last 15 km forms the border between Serbia and Bulgaria.
PARTS OF TIMOK RIVER
BELI TIMOK-WHITE TIMOK
VELIKI TIMOK-GREAT TIMOK
STRMA REKA-STEEP RIVER
CRNI TIMOK-BLACK TIMOK
The Timok starts as the Svrljiški Timok north of the Mountains of Svrljig near the village of Šesti Gabar, and flows to the west, curving around the northern slopes of the Mountains of Svrljig. It passes through many villages reaching the town of Svrljig, that gives its name to the river. In Knjaževac, it meets the Trgoviški Timok after a flow of 64 km and together they form the Beli Timok. Beli (Knjaževački) Timok.
Beli Timok “White Timok”
The Beli Timok “White Timok” continues to the north, almost in a straight line, parallel to the Serbian-Bulgarian border on the east, and the eastern slopes of the mountain Tupižnica, on the west. It is generally considered that from this point Timočka Krajina “Timok Valley” begins. The river passes through Donje Zuniče, Debelica, Drenovac, Borovac and Vratarnica, several small villages, before reaching the larger village of Grljan. In this area, the Beli Timok receives two left tributaries, the Grliška reka and the Lubnička reka. A few kilometers after Grljan, the river reaches the largest city on its course, Zaječar. There, the Beli Timok meets the Crni Timok from the east and continues as the Veliki Timok. The length of the Beli Timok is 51 km (115 km with Svrljiški Timok). Earlier, it was also known as the Knjaževački Timok “Timok of Knjaževac”.
Veliki Timok “Great Timok”
In its final, 88 km-long section, the river is known as the Veliki Timok “Great Timok” or simply the Timok. It turns north-west after Zaječar, running next to the villages of Vražogrnac, Trnavac, Čokonjar, and Brusnik. Passing between the last two it leaves Timočka Krajina and enters Negotinska Krajina. In the lower course the Timok has no major settlements on the Serbian side (though flowing only 7 km from Negotin. Some 15 km before it empties into the Danube as its right tributary, the Timok becomes a border river, passing next to the Bulgarian town of Bregovo and the Bulgarian village of Baley. The river’s mouth represents the northwestern most point of Bulgaria, and is only 28 m above sea level, which makes it the lowest point of Serbia. Timok is part of the Black Sea drainage basin. The main (right) tributaries in this section are Crna reka, Salaška reka, Sikolska reka and Čubarska reka . Apart from Timočka Krajina, the Timok gave its name to a rebellion against Serbian king Milan Obrenović IV in 1883, Timočka buna (“Rebellion of Timok”).
Strma reka-Trgoviški Timok; “Steep river”
The Trgoviški Timok “Timok of Trgovište” also known as Korenatac starts on the western slopes of the Stara Planina mountain, right under the highest peak of the mountain in Serbia, Midžor, less than a kilometer from the Bulgarian border, as the Strma reka “Steep river”. The river runs to the east, receiving three smaller streams from the other peaks of Stara Planina peaks with colorful names Babin Zub and Tri Uši; “Oldwife’s Tooth” and “Three Ears”. The Strma reka passes through the villages of Balta-Berilovac and Inovo. At the village of Kalna, it receives a stream flowing from the south down the Jadovnik mountain, turns to the north and becomes known as the Trgoviški Timok.
Kalna itself is known for the only finding of uranium in Serbia. Preparations were made for the extraction of ore and the opening of a mine, but the project failed. Later, the village was subject of some controversy after allegations were made in the press in the early 1990s that the empty facilities of the doomed mine were used as a dumping place for radioactive waste from Western Europe. Despite months of high publicity in the press, these allegations were yet proved to be true. The Trgoviški Timok flows to the north-west, through Gornja Kamenica, Donja Kamenica, Štrbac, Žukovac and Trgovište, a suburb of Knjaževac and one of the rare settlements in eastern Serbia that experiences population growth. It also gave the name to the river. With the Strma reka, the Trgoviški Timok is 50 km long and receives two right tributaries, the Žukovska reka and the Balinačka reka. Running on the left slopes of the Tresibaba mountain, the river reaches Knjaževac, where it is joined by the Svrljiški Timok from the south-west, forming together the Beli Timok.
Crni (Krivovirski) Timok “Black Timok”
The Crni Timok “Black Timok” originates from the northern side of the Veliki Maljenik mountain, in the Kučaj area of eastern Serbia. It flows near the village of Krivi Vir and continues generally to the north-east, flowing through the Crnorečka kotlina; depression of “Crna Reka”, populated with many smaller villages (Valakonje, Savinac,
Selište, Zvezdan). In its valley is also the important archeological site from Roman times, Gamzigrad. After a flow of 84 km, the Crni Timok reaches Zaječar, where it flows into the Beli Timok, forming the Veliki Timok. Early in its course it receives from the right the Radovanska reka, and later, also from the right the Zlotska reka, the Jasenova reka and the Banjska reka. Since all three tributaries come from the highly polluted area of the Bor copper mining basin, they pollute the Crni Timok, making it the major culprit of the Timok’s overall pollution. The river is also known as the Crna reka “Black river” or the Krivovirski Timok “Timok of Krivi Vir”.
Reka Tisa is considered the largest tributary of Danube River by its total length of 977 kilometers. Tisa River’s source is in Ukraine in the Western Carpathians where the Black Tisa at the altitude of 960 meters and White Tisa at the altitude of 1700 meters join. Tisa River flows through Ukraine, Slov
akia, Romania, Hungary and Serbia. The part of Tisa River course through Ukraine has features of the fast mountainous river with the highest fall in Europe
Tisa River is navigable for 690 kilometers from its confluence into Danube river in Hungary when the level of Tisa is convenient. In Serbia Tisa River’s course is 164 km long from the confluence into Danube up to the Serbian-Hungarian border which is 17 % of its total length. Tisa River is the natural border between Bačka District on its right and Banat District on its left side. As it touches Srem District in Stari Slankamen Tisa is true river of Vojvodina Province. Tisa River is the main river in Vojvodina in regard with its wide and turbulent course. It is also unique place for tourists and fishermen. The settlement “Aradac” situated on the territory of Zrenjanin Municipality at the 37th kilometer of Tisa River flow through Serbia is tourist oasis for swimmers and tourists in summer. At “Biserno Ostrvo” terrains and the area of “Dead Tisa River”are amongst the most popular fishing destination in Serbia. They offer fishermen not only great angling but also some magnificent scenery and good variety of accommodations. There are picturesque vineyard cottages hidden in small vineyards and orchards and tiny restaurants on the river bank serving only fresh-caught fish. Small paths through calm marshland takes you up to the breakwater from where you can swim, fish and use it to bid your boat. Vacation or Fishing on Tisa River always makes treasured memories of authentic ambiance of Vojvodina.
The river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin. Its own drainage area covers 3,950 km² (1,237km² in Bulgaria and 2,713km² in Serbia). The Nišava is not navigable. It has many smaller tributaries, the most important being the Temštica from the right, and the Jerma (or Sukovska reka), Crvena reka, Koritnička reka and Kutinska reka from the left. The Nišava valley is part of a major natural route that from ancient times has connected Europe and Asia: the route follows the valleys of the Morava, Nišava and Maritsa and onwards towards Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. Both the Belgrade-Sofia-Istanbul road and the railway follow this route. Nišava is the longest and the biggest confluent of North Morava. River source is in Bulgaria. In Serbia Nišava flows in length of 151 km, through Dimitrovgrad, Pirot, Bela Palanka and Niš basins. Nišava River created even 17 km long Sićevo canyon which represents unique natural reservation. The old and important roads such Via Militaries – the ancient Roman road and later the Turkish road used to pass through this canyon. In its Serbian part, the Nišava carved a composite valley with several depressions (Dimitrovgrad, Pirot, Bela Palanka and Niš. However, the most prominent geological feature the river formed is the Sićevo gorge “Sićevačka klisura” between Bela Palanka and Niška Banja. The river is quite powerful in the gorge, which is used for two power stations ‘Sićevo’ and ‘Ostrovica’ used for electricity production, irrigation and fishery. The gorge is 17km long, 350–400 m deep, in some parts developing canyon like-structures (like inverse valley slopes at Gradiški kanjon). The gorge itself carved through the Kunovica plateau between the southern slopes of the Mountains of Svrljig and the mountain of Suva Planina, and the surrounding areas are known for their high-quality vineyards. There is also a huge quarry in the gorge ‘Ostrovica’, where six villages are located, the largest one being Sićevo that gives the name to the whole gorge.
The Timiş or Tamiš (Romanian: Timiş; Serbian: Тамиш; German: Temesch; Hungarian: Temes) is a 359 km long river rising in the Semenic Mountains, southern Carpathian Mountains. It flows through the Banat region and flows into the Danube near Pančevo. In antiquity, the river was known as Tibiscus and Tibisis. The river starts at the junction of headwaters Brebu, Grădiştea and Semenic in Lake Trei Ape. After entering Banat, the river becomes slow and meandering. In its lower course, the river is regulated, and for the last 53 km it is navigable. The most important port is the heavily industrialized Pančevo. The river’s old mouth into the Danube was some 40 km to the north-west of Pančevo, between villages of Čenta and Surduk, thus it was shorter. Canal Karaš (cyrillic: Караш) remained marking old river bed, and the area bounded by the old and new river beds and the Danube, is called Pančevački Rit (“Marches of Pančevo”, cyrillic: Панчевачки Рит). The 400 km² large wetland was constantly flooded, but since World War II it has been drained part by part and almost half of it is turned into a very fertile patch of land. After being sparsely habited before 1930s, today its population density is above average for Serbia as a whole, since some of the fastest growing suburbs of Belgrade, Borča, Kotež and Krnjača are built there. The whole area of Pančevački Rit belongs administratively to Belgrade’s municipality of Palilula.
Near Jankov Most the Begej becomes part of large canal Danube-Tisa-Danube (or DTD) and turns south, receiveng waters from Novi Begej. There it’s separated from DTD route turning west and reaching Zrenjanin. From there it continues to the south, using old river bed of Tisa, passing through Stajićevo and Perlez. In this part, it flows through marshlands, some of which are transformed into fishponds, like Belo jezero; White lake and Fishpond Ečka, the largest one in Serbia with an area of 25km². The remaining parts of wetland make the largest bog in Serbia,Carska bara; Imperial marsh, 11km², after which Begej empties into the Tisa. Through Tisa and Danube, it belongs to the Black Sea draining basin. Channeled parts of both Stari Begej and Novi Begej are navigable. Settlements on Novi Begej include villages of Srpski Itebej(with huge fishpond), Novi Itebej, Torak(formerly Begejci) and Žitište.Stari Begej – Carska Bara is a remnant of the once flooded area in the lower Begej River. It is a mosaic of fishponds, swamp, marsh, forest, meadow, and steppe intersected by rivers, canals, and embankments. Vegetation consists of salt-tolerant communities, a rich aquatic flowering plant community, and steppe vegetation. The diversity of biotopes gives rise to high species diversity at the site and includes various rare, endangered, or vulnerable fish, birds, plants, amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
Lim belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin through Drina, Sava and Danube. It receives many smaller streams in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, however, two most important being two of its right tributaries in Serbia, Uvac and Mileševska reka. Though today is generally considered that the river’s name is derived from Latin word limes, which means border, it might originated from the Celtic rootllyn or llym, meaning drink or water. In the border area, the Lim carved a long gorge Kumanička klisura, between the mountains of Lisa (in Montenegro) and Ozren (in Serbia). Lim continues between the mountains of Jadovnik, Pobijenik and Zlatar, and runs through the northern part of the Sandžak area(or Raška area). Upstream of Priboj, the river is dammed by the hydro power plant “Potpeć”, creating artificial Lake Potpeć. After Priboj it turns north-west and enters Bosnia and Herzegovina, but only for a few kilometers when it flows back to Serbia and then again to Bosnia at Rudo.
Uvac River flows between the northern cliffs of gorgeous Zlatar Mountain and the southern cliffs of Zlatibor Mountain chains and slopes of Javor Mountain. Uvac River is situated in Western Serbia, 119 km long right and major tributary of the Lim, loosely making the northern border of the Sandzak; Raska region. Before it empties into the Lim, for a 10 kilometers it forms the border between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. About 250 km south of Belgrade, Uvac river makes several lakes thanks to its mountainous energy-potential. The cliffs around the Uvac Lake are natural habitat for whitehead vulture (Griffin Vultures) which is the largest colony of griffin vultures in the Balkans. About 250 specimen of these rare birds protected by the law live in the wild area of Uvac River and make the symbols of Uvac Canyon.
The Pčinja river, is the 128 km long river in Serbia and Macedonia, the left tributary of the Vardar river. The Pčinja belongs to the Aegean Sea drainage basin. The Pčinja originates from several streams on the western slopes of the Dukat mountain which meet at the village of Radovnica and continue to the west originally under the name of theTripušnica. The river creates a micro-region of Pčinja, with center being the municipal seat of Trgovište where Tripušnica meets the left tributary of Lesnička reka from the south and continues to the west under the name of Pčinja. All the major tributaries of the Pčinja are in Macedonia: Bistrica, Petrošnica and Kriva reka from the left; Kumanovska reka, from the right. The valley of the river Pčinja is positioned in southeastern Serbia. It comprises the river Pčinja and foothills of the Kozjak Mt. and Starac Mt., which are separated by the river Pčinja. The central part of this protected landscape is the river Pčinja itself, which draws attention for the beauty of its ravines and meanders. The area is located at the border of the continental and Mediterranean climate and, combining the characteristics of both climate types, it is favourable for many species of plants and animals. On one side, it represents the southern border of distribution for continental species of flora and fauna, and on the other side, the northern border of distribution for species characteristic for the Mediterranean. Polydominant thermophilous forests and thickets of the downy oak, Turkey oak, Italian oak, Oriental hornbeam, ash, prickly juniper, Turkish filbert, and many other species, among which there are numerous Tertiary relics, prevail in this area. The characteristic species of animals are the snake-eyed skink, ocellated skink, large whip snake, red-romped swallow northern goshawk, Levant sparrow hawk. The richness of the flora and fauna, the preserved morphology of the terrain and the cultural monument of extraordinary significance, the Monastery of St. Prohor Pčinjski from the 11th century, make this area particularly important from the aspect of conservation of natural and cultural-historical values.
The Jerma or Erma is a river in southeastern Serbia and western Bulgaria. Even though not very long (74 km), it is notable for passing the Serbian-Bulgarian border twice. The Jerma originates in the undeveloped and sparsely populated area of Krajište, in the southeastern corner of Serbia. Starting from between the artificial Lake Vlasina and the Bulgarian border, it flows to the northwest on the eastern slopes of the Gramada mountain, passing through the village of Klisura, after which it enters the area of Znepolje, an arid region stretching over the border into Bulgaria. This is where the Jerma crosses the border for the first time, at the border crossing of Strezimirovci. After Tran (Bulgaria), the Erma cut the famous gorge Transko ždrelo “Gorge of Tran”. After the gorge, the Erma receives its major tributary, the
Yablanitsa, right before it re-enters Serbia after 26 km of flow in Bulgaria. The river crosses the border for the second time at the villages of Bankya (Bulgaria) and Petačinci (Serbia). The Jerma continues to flow generally to the north, passing next to the village of Iskrovci and the picturesque spa of Zvonačka Banja. Proceeding between the mountains of Greben and Vlaška planina, it runs close to the villages of Trnsko-Odorovce and Vlasi, and the monasteries of Sveti Jovan, Sveti Nikolaj and Sveta Bogorodica, before it empties into the, southeast of Pirot after a total of 48 km in Serbia (thus belonging to the Black Sea drainage area). In this last section, the Jerma flows through the Sukovo coal basin, named after the village Sukovo, which is not on the banks of the Jerma itself, but a bit to the west. However, despite the hard coal was of high quality (7,000 cal), the coal mine near Pirot was shut down and coal is not being extracted anymore. In this final section, the Jerma is also known as Sukovska reka “river of Sukovo”. The river also has potential for production of hydroelectricity, but this resource is not used either.