Voivodina

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Copyright: Vlado Marinković
 

Colorful northern part of Serbia, intertwined plains with Danube, Tisa, Sava and other smaller rivers. Very popular among travelers, because of its beautiful varieties: ranches, traditional music, incredible gastronomy, beautiful nature, cosmopolitan spirit, rich cultural and historical heritage and the incredible diversity of flora and fauna. The slopes of Fruška Gora and Vršačke mountains are ideal for tasting excellent wines, historic and touristic tours and gorgeous nature. Visit Vojvodina and feel the generous spirit of its people.

It is located in the Pannonian Plain of Central Europe. It has a population of about 2 million, about 27% of Serbia’s total. The region is divided by the Danube and Tisza rivers into: Bačka in the northwest, Banat in the east and Srem in the southwest. A small part of the Mačva region is also located in Vojvodina, in the Srem District. Today, the western part of Srem is in Croatia, the northern part of Bačka is in Hungary, the eastern part of Banat is in Romania (with a small piece in Hungary), while Baranja (which is between the Danube and the Drava) is in Hungary and Croatia. Vojvodina has a total surface area of 21,500 km2. Vojvodina is also part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa euro region.

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Most of Vojvodina area is a flat terrain, but there are several mountain areas such are Fruška Gora, Vršac Mountains, Titelski Breg, and Zagajička Brda, as well as sandy areas such are Deliblatska Peščara (nicknamed “the European Sahara”), and Subotička Peščara.

 

There are also many water areas in Vojvodina, including rivers, lakes, bogs, as well as artificial canals used for agricultural production and water traffic, most notable of those is Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal.

Main rivers in Vojvodina are: Danube, Sava, Tisa, Begej, Tamiš, Karaš, Bosut.

Main lakes and bogs are: Palić, Ludoš, Ledinci, Rosanda, Obed bog.

 

palicHunting grounds in Vojvodina include agricultural lands and forests. Main agricultural hunting grounds in Vojvodina are located near Bečej, Senta, Kanjiža, Novi Kneževac, Ečka, Novo Miloševo, Padej, Kikinda, Ada, and Sombor. Main forest hunting grounds are located in Posavina (near river Sava), Podunavlje (near river Danube), Fruška Gora, Vršac Mountains, Deliblatska Peščara, and Subotička Peščara. Hunted animals include rabbits, deers, different sorts of birds, boars, mouflons, etc.
Main fishing grounds in Vojvodina are located on the Danube river near Apatin, Sombor, Bačka Palanka and Novi Sad, on the Sava river near Sremska Mitrovica, on the Bosut river near Šid, on Obedska bara in Srem, on the Palić lake in Bačka, on the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal, on rivers Tisa and Tamiš, as well as on the lakes and channels in southern Banat, near Bela Crkva and Kovin.
 
fruska_gora2FRUŠKA GORA — a gently sloping hill south of Novi Sad is the second nearest mountain that Vojvodina has (the nearest is Vršački Breg, which rises above Vršac). Fruska Gora possesses a dozen of monasteries of the Serbian Orthodox Church built between 15-19th centuries by Serbian settlers from the South. Combining the European Baroque with the Byzantine traditions of the Balkans, these churches had a cultural importance as a bridge between the Southern and the Northern Serbs.
 
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SREMSKI KARLOVCI — became famous in 1699 when the Austrians and the Turks signed there the “Peace of Karlowitz” finally ejecting the Ottomans from Vojvodina and Croatia. It has also long been a cultural seat of the Serbs in Austria-Hungary. It contains the Patriarchate of Serbian Church (approved by Leopold of Austria) and the oldest Serbian gymnasium (1791). Today belonging to the municipality of Novi Sad, it remains one of the most picturesque towns in the country.

 
dvoracdundjerskiDUNĐERSKI CASTLE — Vojvodina has more than twenty castles belonging mostly to German, Magyar, and Serbian noble families in the past, and the Dunjerski Castle is the most visited one. Bogdan Dunđerski is a member of the richest family in Vojvodina late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. On his farm, which stretched to over 2600 acres of land, he built in the middle of the plain, the castle of his dream. Today, the castle became a hotel.
PALIĆ LAKE — one of the oldest tourist attractions in the country, dating back to the 1840s, when it was not only a popular weekend escape, but also a spa for well-to-do middle class and nobility.
 

Tourist destinations in Vojvodina include well known Orthodox monasteries on Fruška Gora mountain, numerous hunting grounds, cultural-historical monuments, different folklores, interesting galleries and museums, plain landscapes with a lot of greenery, big rivers, canals and lakes, sandy terrain Deliblatska Peščara, etc. In the last few years, Exit has been very popular among the European summer music festivals.

HISTORY

After being defeated by the Ottoman Empire close to Vienna, in 1690, Patriarch Čarnojević lead Serbs in great movement from south to the Pannonian plane. The Austrian emperor promised Serbs that they will choose the duke (serb. Vojvoda) themselves. This is the first time that the term «vojvodstvo» (dukedom) was mentioned. The term (Serbian) Vojvodina emerged in 1848 on the session of the May’s Parliament in Sremski Karlovci. In order to preserve their language and religion Serbs have defended the Austrian Empire along the military border. Their spiritual kingdom was built in the crossfire of the great powers. Gathered around Svetozar Miletić, they united in a strong, national movement. By the National’s Parliament Decree in Novi Sad, Vojvodina was annexed to Serbia on 25th November 1918.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

Vojvodina’s great cultural tradition and valuable heritage were enriched by all nations of this region. The migrating population was bringing, creating and reproducing the elements of their own culture, but also accepting the other nations’ influences.Art and music have the longest tradition, from ancient time. The folklore from that time was preserved in various ways up to now. The earliest literacy was in connection with Catholic and Orthodox monasteries. Nations living here were meeting, mixing and influencing each other. Vojvodina by its geographical position is at the borders of two civilizations, western and oriental, although the major characteristics to the social life were given by the Middle-European culture.Contemporary Vojvodina arose from the ruins of many empires. Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Germans, Greeks, Armenians, Jews and Aromanians. Hungarians, Slovaks and Ukrainians have already been in Vojvodina. This is the reason why the heritage of Vojvodina is colorful. Settlers from “lower countries” built more than thirty monasteries on the Fruška Gora. That’s why Fruška Gora is called the second Mount Athos. Serbian literacy was born here with establishment of the first Serbian gymnasium in 1871 in Sremski Karlovci. The oldest Serbian cultural-scientific institution “MATICA SRPSKA” was founded in 1826 as well as Serbian National Theatre in 1861. The oldest literary magazine in the world the Letopis (The Chronicle), which is still being issued in Vojvodina, was launched in 1825. Orfelin, the etcher, Sterija, the satirist, Pupin, the scientist, Predić, the painter, the wise Isidora Sekulić, Miroslav Antić, the great Serbian poet and many others, all came from Vojvodina.

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SERBIAN ORTHODOX MONASTERIES 

 

 

 

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Kovilj13th century Beočinfirst records in 1566 Bešenevo13th century Velika Remeta13th century Vrdnik Ravanicasecond half of 16th century Grgeteg1471
Divšalate 15th century Jazak1736 Krušedol1509 – 1516 Kuveždin1566 – 1569 Mala Remeta16th century Novo Hopovo1641
Privina glava12th century Petkovica1566 – 1567 Rakovac1545 – 1546 Staro Hopovo1545 – 1546 Šišatovac16th century Bođani1478
Mesić15 vek  Vojlovica1374 – 1427

 

Holy Trinity1885-1887 Bavanište15 vek  Središte15 vek 

Other important sites:

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BAČ  FORTRESS is a medieval fortress in Vojvodina. It is located near the town of Bač. Built at the time of Hungarian King Charles Robert I (1310–1342). There were eight towers, corridors, kitchen, well, barn, etc.. Then, Bač Fortress became an important military, political, cultural and ecclesiastical seat. During the Mohács battle in 1529, the city and fort were under the Turkish rule.

According to traveler description the city was surrounded by a wide circle of trenches filled with water. From the time of Rákóczi Rebellion (1703–1711) fortress was burned, destroyed and abandoned. In addition Bač fort remained the best preserved medieval fortress in Vojvodina. Today, in Bač are the ruins of the former fortress whose base is in the form of an irregular pentagon. In the ruins there are four lateral and one central tower height of 18 meters, which was partially reconstructed.

 

VRŠAC TOWER – vrsac1

There are two theories about the origin of this fortress. According to the Turkish traveler, Evliya Çelebi, the fortress was built by the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. Historians consider that Branković built the fortress after the fall of Smederevo in 1439. In its construction the fortress had some architectural elements similar to those in the fortress of Smederevo and the fortress around the Manasija monastery. The other theory claims that Vršac Castle is a remnant of the medieval fortress known as Erdesumulu. However, the other sources do not identify Erdesumulu with Vršac, but claim that the location of this town and fortress was further to the east, on the Karaš River, in present-day Romanian Banat. A Town named Erdesumulu was first mentioned in 1227. A Dominican monastery with the relics of Saint Dominic was founded there between 1230 and 1240, while from 1255 it was the seat of the comes. The fortress of Erdesumulu was built in 1335 as a royal fortress. After the Ottoman conquest in 1552, the Vršac fortress was used by the Ottomans.

 

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PETROVARADIN FORTRESS – Recent archeological discoveries have offered a new perspective not only on the history of Petrovaradin, but on the entire region. At the Upper Fortress, the remains of an earlier Paleolithic settlement dating from 19,000 to 15,000 BC have been discovered. With this new development it has been established that there has been a continuous settlement at this site from the Paleolithic age to the present. During the excavations carried out in 2005, archeologists also discovered another significant find. Examining remains from the early Bronze Age (c. 3000 BC), ramparts were discovered which testify that already at that time a fortified settlement existed at the Petrovaradin site. The first larger fortifications were created with the arrival of the Romans who built the fortress (Cusum) which was a part of the fortified borders (Limes) along the Danube. The turning point in the history of the area came in 1235 AD when King Bela IV of Hungary brought a group of the Order of Cistercians from France. This order of monks built the monastery Belakut upon the remains of the Roman fortress of Cusum. The walls of this monastery were built between 1247 and 1252 and represent the fortifications at this site during the middle Ages. The fortress was strengthened due to the threat of Turkish invasion. However the fortress fell after a two week siege in 1526. Austrian-Turkish wars, The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War in 1687.

 

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The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards. In 1692, the Kriegshofrath (translat.: war court counsil) ordered engineers to Petrovaradin to investigate the area in order to build a new fortress. Count Keysersfeld received both financial and personnel support. The first plans for the fortress were designed by the engineer Colonel Count Mathias Keyserfeld, and afterwards by Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (1659–1730). The works in the field were led by the engineer Colonel Michael Wamberg who died in 1703 and was buried in the church of the Franciscan monastery which today serves as part of the present day military hospital. On September 9, 1694, the Grand Vizier Sürmeli Ali Paşa arrived at Petrovaradin Fortress from Belgrade. A siege of 23 days was laid on; however poor weather conditions in October forced the Turkish forces to retreat towards Belgrade with their task left unfinished. The victory of the Austrians under the command of Prince Eugene of Savoy at Senta on September 11, 1697 resulted in creating the conditions for the conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz in 1699. A new war with the Turks was imminent. The Austrian lack of interest in war, plus the war reparations suggested by the Austrians to the Turks in the interest of the Venetian Republic all served as reasons for the renewal of Turkish aggression towards Austria. In order to prepare for the upcoming battle, Prince Savoy ordered the concentration of Austrian troops around Futog under the temporary command of Count Johann Pálffy. Prince Savoy arrived personally on July 9. The entire Austrian army numbered 76,000 troops. In the meantime, the Turkish army concentrated 150,000 troops at Belgrade. The decisive battle between the Austrian and Turkish armies took place on August 5, 1716 at Petrovaradin. The Austrians were led by Prince Savoy and the Turks were under the command of Grand Vizier Damad Ali Paşa. The victory of the Austrian army signaled the end of the Turkish threat to central Europe. In addition to these sites, and worth seeing are: Starčevo – archaeological site with findings of widespread early Neolithic Starčevo culture. Gomolava – archaeological site with prehistoric findings near Hrtkovci. Gradina – archaeological site with prehistoric findings on the Bosut river near Šid. Vatin – archaeological site with findings of prehistoric Vatin culture near Vršac. Židovar – archaeological site with prehistoric findings near Orešac.

 

 

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